There is a variety of biotic reef types, including oyster reefs, but the most massive and widely distributed are tropical coral reefs. Although corals are major contributors to the framework and bulk material comprising a coral reef, the organisms most responsible for reef growth against the constant assault from ocean waves are calcareous algae, especially, although not entirely, species of coralline algae.
Veins are classically thought of as being the result of growth of crystals on the walls of planarfractures in rocks, with the crystal growth occurring normal to the walls of the cavity, and the crystal protruding into open space. This certainly is the method for the formation of some veins. However, it is rare in geology for significant open space to remain open in large volumes of rock, especially several kilometers below the surface. Thus, there are two main mechanisms considered likely for the formation of veins: open-space filling and crack-seal growth.
Open space filling
Open space filling is the hallmark of epithermal vein systems, such as a stockwork, in greisens or in certain skarn environments. For open space filling to take effect, the confining pressure is generally considered to be below 0.5 GPa, or less than 3-5 kilometers. Veins formed in this way may exhibit a colloform, agate-like habit, of sequential selvages of minerals which radiate out from nucleation points on the vein walls and appear to fill up the available open space. Often evidence of fluid boiling is present. Vugs, cavities and geodes are all examples of open-space filling phenomena in hydrothermal systems.
The reef knot, or square knot, is an ancient and simple binding knot used to secure a rope or line around an object. It is sometimes also referred to as a Hercules knot. The knot is formed by tying a left-handed overhand knot and then a right-handed overhand knot, or vice versa. A common mnemonic for this procedure is "right over left; left over right", which is often appended with the rhyming suffix "... makes a knot both tidy and tight". Two consecutive overhands of the same handedness will make a granny knot. The working ends of the reef knot must emerge both at the top or both at the bottom, otherwise a thief knot results.
Although the reef knot is often seen used for tying two ropes together, it is not recommended for this purpose because of the potential instability of the knot, and over-use has resulted in many deaths (see #Misuse as a bend).
The reef knot is at least between 4,000 and 9,000 years old. The name "reef knot" dates from at least 1794 and originates from its common use to reef sails, that is to tie part of the sail down to decrease its effective surface area in strong winds. To release the knot a sailor could collapse it with a pull of one hand; the sail's weight would make the collapsed knot come apart. It is specifically this behavior which makes the knot unsafe for connecting two ropes together.
Maritime is an album by Minotaur Shock, released in 2005 via 4AD. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalised rating out of 100to reviews from mainstream critics, Maritime received an average score of 76, based on 15reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews".
"Muesli" – 3:06
"(She's In) Dry Dock Now" – 3:56
"Vigo Bay" – 4:22
"Six Foolish Fishermen" – 3:54
"Hilly" – 6:33
"Twosley" – 4:05
"Somebody Once Told Me It Existed But They Never Found It" – 6:00
Maritime is an American indie pop band formed in 2003 after the breakup of The Promise Ring and The Dismemberment Plan. Eric Axelson (bass guitarist) of The Dismemberment Plan and Davey von Bohlen (singer/guitarist) and Dan Didier (drummer) of The Promise Ring started a band called In English. The group quickly signed a deal with the record label ANTI- and hired J. Robbins to produce their record. Robbins had previously produced records for both The Promise Ring and The Dismemberment Plan. After delivering the record to ANTI-, the company decided it did not want the record. The band changed its name to Maritime and signed with DeSoto Records. The band went on tour and self-released an EP called Adios on their own label, Foreign Leisure. On April 1, 2004, the band released its first full-length album, Glass Floor on DeSoto Records.
On February 6, 2006, Axelson announced that he was leaving the band. He was replaced on bass guitar by Justin Klug.
Their second album, We, the Vehicles, was released on April 18, 2006, on Flameshovel Records to wide critical acclaim.